Greek Folk Art

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Twitch Accessory Navicular Fracture

Twitch Accessory Navicular Fracture

Overview
An accessory navicular bone is an accessory bone of the foot that occasionally develops abnormally causing a plantar medial enlargement of the navicular. The accssory navicular bone presents as a sesamoid in the posterior tibial tendon, in articulation with the navicular or as an enlargment of the navicular. Navicular (boat shaped) is an intermediate tarsal bone on the medial side of the foot. It is located on the medial side of the foot, and articulates proximally with the talus. Distally it articulates with the three cuneiform bones. In some cases it articulates laterally with the cuboid. The tibialis posterior inserts to the os naviculare. The tibialis posterior muscle also contracts to produce inversion of the foot and assists in the plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle. Tibialis posterior also has a major role in supporting the medial arch of the foot. This supports is compromised by abnormal insertion of the tendon into the accessory navicular bone when present. This lead to loss of suspension of tibialis posterior tendon and may cause peroneal spastic pes planus or simple pes planus. But, yet a cause and effect relationship between the accessory navicular and pes planus is doubtful and is yet unproved clearly.

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Causes
An accessory navicular develops as a result of a congenital anomaly and is found more often in women. If the bone is large, it may rub against a shoe, causing pain. Because of its location, the posterior tibial tendon may pull on the bone during walking or running, causing the fibrous tissue that connects the accessory navicular to the How does Achilles tendonitis occur? navicular to tear and become inflamed.

Symptoms
Many people have accessory (?extra?) naviculars (figure 1) - a prominent extra bone extending from the navicular bone. Most accessory naviculars are completely asymptomatic. However, some individuals will develop pain on the inside of their midfoot. Pain may occur from the pressure of the shoe ware against the prominence, irritating either the bone itself or the fibrous junction where the accessory bone meets the regular navicular. Alternatively, the fibrous junction or interface may become painful as a result of tension applied by the posterior tibial tendon through its connection or insertion at that site. Often, individuals will be asymptomatic for years, however, a new pair of shoes or a change in their activity level can cause symptoms. The accessory navicular itself typically develops during adolescence, when the two areas of the navicular bone fail to fuse together.

Diagnosis
Your doctor will diagnose an accessory navicular by examining your child?s foot. Your physician may also obtain x-rays to confirm the accessory navicular and to rule out other conditions.

Non Surgical Treatment
A combination of the following non-surgical treatments may be used to relieve the symptoms of accessory navicular syndrome. Immobilizing the foot with a cast or a removable walking boot allows the foot to rest and reduces inflammation. Applying ice to the affected area is an effective way to reduce swelling and inflammation. Wrap a bag of ice with a thin towel and apply for intervals of 15 to 20 minutes. Never put ice directly on the skin. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin or ibuprofen might be prescribed. Sometimes, a combination of immobilization and oral or injected corticosteroid medications may reduce pain and inflammation. Physical therapy may be prescribed to include exercises and treatments that increase muscle strength, decrease inflammation and help prevent the recurrence of symptoms. Custom orthotic devices worn in the shoe provide arch support and may prevent future symptoms from developing. The symptoms of this syndrome may reappear even after successful treatment. If so, non-surgical treatments are often repeated.

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Surgical Treatment
The original procedure advocated by Kidner involved shelling out of the accessory navicular bone from within the insertional area of the posterior tibial tendon and rerouting this tendon under the navicular bone in hopes of restoring a normal pull of this tendon. When treating younger children, history has shown us that simply shelling out of the accessory navicular bone from within the tendon and remodeling the tuberosity of the navicular bone can give you satisfactory results.
In general, you want to reserve advancement of the posterior tibial tendon for adults or those who have a more significant flatfoot deformity. You may also use this approach after determining that quality custom orthotics are only resulting in a slight decrease of symptoms.
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